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The role of women in Russian history.
Is it not permissible to compare the fate of E. R. Dashkova - the most well-educated woman of the
Enlightenment, the president of two academies at the age of  27 years, who knew 14 languages,
with the fate of other educated ladies of the time - the first Russian poetess and authoress: E. A.
Knyazhnina, E. A. Velyasheva-Volyntzeva, V. A. Volkova, E. S. Menshikova.
In those days there were ladies of high society,
drawn not so much in the pleasures and
temptations of court life, but the study of basic
sciences, arts, history, philosophy and law: the
countesses M. G. Razumovskaya, A. K.
Vorontsova, M. A. Naryshkina.  Once first
Russia's public theater occured in 1756,
straightway among the brightest theatrical
talents there was clearly revealed a talent of
dramatic actress T. M. Troepol'skaya, dancers
A. Timofeeva and A. Berilova, as well as
incomparable Praskovia Kovalyova
(1768-1803), called by her fans "the pearl of the
Russian stage" (later - the wife of Count N.
We know unforgivable little about the life of
basic mass of Russian women of the 18th
century. One thing is certain - in the families of
merchants the women could be engaged in
commercial transactions, in the peasants they
worked hard in the field and at home. Church
settings, as previously, supported the idea of
primacy of the husband in family, not
E. R. Dashkova
denying, however, the authority of the mother. The role of woman in the family of any status
remained significant: education and upbringing of children, caring for the farm, the right to dispose
the household budgets - all of these responsibilities of wives and mothers were assigned by a
A. K. Vorontsova
Laws and the church defended their honor and
dignity, strong kinsfolk (the woman's family)
could force the husband (if he hurt his wife) to
repent, or with the help of church authorities
even to insist on an exile to a monastery for
six months or a year. Sometimes the way to
resolve the conflict became a divorce -
previously almost unthinkable, especially on
woman's initiative.
Eighteenth Century in Russia's history ended
with the decree of Paul I, prevents the transfer
of the throne to women. But the 70-year "era of
women's government" has done its job: in
socio-political and cultural life of Russia a
"female enzyme" had appeared, because of it
a rapid formation of female identity began, and
together with it the "woman question" as well.
The origin of the idea of liberation
(emancipation) of women was from those days
understanding of social and family equality. Is
socio-sexual equality necessary for society
wellbeing, what are the forms of its
manifestation - all of these issues arose 
almost simultaneously in the public mind of number of European countries and Russia, it was two
centuries ago. To the noble goals of strengthening of "socialization" of women had served the first on
Russian soil, an organization for achieving social goals, "The women's patriotic society".
Founded in 1812, it marked the beginning of
the women's movement in Russia. The first
decades of the 19th century gave birth a new
female character in life and literature. Educated
women of that time, which were brought up in
romantic prose, poetry and humanistic
traditions of the 18th century, who read
Voltaire, Rousseau and Goethe, have found a
marvelous power of the moral sense. Christian
ideas of loyalty, sacrifice and suffering for the
sake of fulfillment of moral obligations, which
were inspired in them from childhood and were
the basis of family education of their mothers
and grandmothers, have generated a
phenomenon of a strong spirit woman, steady
in the temptation, selfless in a desire to help
others, especially friends, family, husband. It is
no coincidence that half a century later Fyodor
Dostoyevsky had called the image of Pushkin's
Tatyana Larina a "nationally artistic mode".
M. A. Naryshkina
The "Decembrists" could be called the younger sisters of "Members of the Patriotic Society". The
moral feat of A. Trubetskaya, M. Volkonskaya and those who followed their example, is well known,
Praskovia Kovalyova
as well as the fact that they were led by a
moral obligation, which demanded to share the
hardships of prison and exile with their
husbands and brothers.
It is through these women were often carried
the letters of prisoners, some of them (E.
Uvarova, sister of M. Lunin) were taken for the
transmission and distribution in the capital the
political and philosophical works written in
prison. By creating the public libraries and aid
stations in Siberia, organizing lectures and
concerts, such as in the capital, the
"decembrists" rallied those who were in exile.
By the very their lives, they lined up a model of
possible for  women  the out-of-family (public)
initiatives. Through a heartfelt affection to their
husbands and brothers  their cousins were
approaching the idea of active protest against
injustice, and therefore were considered later
"classical examples of extraordinary energy."
For the Russian women it is joyful and pleasant day: two in one like Mother's day and
Valentine's altogether. On this day, even the traffic police officers do not impose a fine to
women drivers using only oral remarks. Very often, particularly in recent times, a woman
at the wheel may receive flowers instead recovery from the policeman! 
read more>>>    
On December 14, 1825 in St. Petersburg on the Senate Square there was the first in the
history of Russia organized action of gentry revolutionaries against the tsarist autocracy
and tyranny. These were the senior officers of the tsarist army. The revolt was suppressed.
Five of its organizers were hanged, others were sent to hard labor in Siberia, demoted to
the ranks... Eleven wives of the Decembrists prisoners shared their Siberian exile of theirs
own free will.
read more>>>   
...Short name, in turn, has many different forms and varies in spelling and  pronunciation,
which leads foreigners to some confusion. In Russian language using a particular form of
the first name you can express your attitude to person.
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