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The role of women in Russian history.
Contemporaries of the Decembrists authoresses of Pushkin's time are the example of consistency
and fidelity to high moral principles, the lively participation in the dissemination of the liberalists
ideals. What unites them with those who paved the way for the emergence in Russia, "women's
issue", including decembrists? They were as little as two dozen women writers of the beginning of
19th century (Decembrists were in total of 11). However, defending the ideas of female equality in at
least the right to express their views, for their public disclosure, A. V. Zrazhevskaya, K. K. Pavlova,
A. P. Zontag, E. Timasheva and others have passed the painful path of self-knowledge and
self-determination. Constantly bumping into "mental dams" of tsarist censorship, they still dare to
talk about their disagreement with stereotypes of "conventional", to protest against the nation-wide
principle of "well-intention", they were bolder and freer than it was customary to expect from a
woman at the time. With their appearance on the literary horizon, they announced the right of
Russian woman to be heard, despite on the fact that they were forced to defend this right and to
overcome both the hatred of conservatives and skepticism of left-radical political thinkers (V. G .
Women writers have broken through to us from oblivion because their libertarian, patriotic works
written woman-like emotionally, had a special influence in that society. Poetry of protagonist of
association with Westerners Slavophiles K. Pavlova, her contemporaries Rostopchina E. and N.
Teplova, who expressed the open sympathy for the heroes of December 14, aroused keen interest
and therefore become a factor that shapes the social mood of the opposition.
Many of the authoresses of the second third of
the 19th century were hostess of own literary
salons. "Queen of the Muses and Beauty" Z.
N. Volkonskaya, "night princess" E. I 
Golitsyna, "light-winged butterfly" S. D.
Ponomariov, the representatives of family line
of Kutuzov and Karamzin, A. Elagina - these
all were educated women, if not shared  the
idea of eliminating or upgrading the autocratic
system, but wished to participate in the
discussions of such issues. Their arguments
were closely woven into the social flirting, they
were a form of initiation of the capital and
provincial noblewomen to public life.
Charitable activity was also considered as a
step in this direction. The role of wealthy
Russian women from the Empress to provincial
landowner can not be overestimated in this.
Due to diligence of Russian wives of rulers
(Maria Feodorovna, Elizabeth Alexeyevna,
Alexandra, and later Maria Alexandrovna) there
were many women handicrafts,
Sofia Kovalevskaya
educational houses and schools for the daughters of all ranks in the country, and to the 40-s the first
commercial schools for women have emerged in St. Petersburg and Moscow.
All of them were somehow preparing changes in the social life of Russia, that had carried out in 60-s,
that very Russian "revolution from topping" (the abolition of serfdom, February 19, 1861), in the
preparation of which were directly involved such well-known liberalists as Princess Elena Pavlovna -
the aunt of Alexander II and the wife of one of the most famous "liberal bureaucrats" of that time, D.
A. Milutin. It was curious and symptomatic for the Russian "women's history", that aunt of Czar
Liberator was most actively taken the initiative to abolish the serfdom! She supported the idea of
emancipation of  peasants with a substantial allotment of land, compensation for which the state
was supposed to pay the landowners.
Since 1858 - the year of initiation of the first amateur women's organization in Russia - entered a new
stage in the history of the collective identity of Russian women. After 1861 the degree of openness of
the political regime had changed, but remained the dominant ideal of women as a faithful friend of a
man, mother and educator of children. All the activities of women outside the usual framework of the
family met bewilderment and even rejection. This was the time of occurrence of the first female
literary critics, journalists, women's labor artisanal creators and publishers, interpreters, women
doctors which were educated in Western universities, but even in an intelligent environment they
were treated with suspicion.
Very substantial huge step forward was made
by the female collective identity in Russia for
just half a century - from 1800 to mid 1850's: if
older cousin of Princess Elena Pavlovna
Empress Maria Feodorovna felt that women's
purpose is only to "cultivate good habits of
children and keep house", then aunt of Czar
Liberator openly supported those energetic
representatives of the Russian youth, who
fought for the right to be female students.
The struggle for women's access to higher
education was induced by increased
self-esteem, desire for intellectual
independence, interest in public affairs, the
need to effectively serve the interests of the
people and thereby to strengthen the respect
for women in society. "In order to gain a bit of
life" - wrote one of the students of mid-19th
century, A. N. Suslova, later on the MD and
prominent member of the liberation movement -
"I get ready to fight for equal rights. With the
flag, in which put this motto, I rush to fight
against the powers that be". Young woman
with books and notebooks in hand appeared in
the streets of major cities in the mid 50's of
19th century. In 1860-ies the  shape of girl
student - listener of Higher Courses for
Women, which were created in Moscow, St.
Petersburg and several other large cities, has
rarely surprised anyone. The image of women 
Girl student - listener of Higher Courses for Women.
professor which looked yet comical   in early 1830-s, in only 30 years became the object of
admiration (S. Kovalevskaya, J. Lermontova, A. Kashevarova-Rudneva, V. Haruzina, the first Russian
"Academician in woman's cap" - the archaeologist Countess Uvarova P. A.), and the idea of women's
admission to the university department was on everyone's lips.
... Increasingly, we peered into the past. We can see in ten centuries history of Russia, not only
those who were homemakers, mothers and wives, but the rulers and chroniclers, intelligent
interviewees and forward-looking  diplomatists, rebels and generous philanthropists. Their historical
outlines sometimes are flamboyant, sometimes pale due to lack of sources, but each woman's fate
is majestic and original. By their biographies - both ordinary and extraordinary - they have
contributed to the formation of the phenomenon of Russian woman's identity, which became the
pioneer of this new world in the XX century...
For the Russian women it is joyful and pleasant day: two in one like Mother's day and
Valentine's altogether. On this day, even the traffic police officers do not impose a fine to
women drivers using only oral remarks. Very often, particularly in recent times, a woman
at the wheel may receive flowers instead recovery from the policeman! 
read more>>>    
On December 14, 1825 in St. Petersburg on the Senate Square there was the first in the
history of Russia organized action of gentry revolutionaries against the tsarist autocracy
and tyranny. These were the senior officers of the tsarist army. The revolt was suppressed.
Five of its organizers were hanged, others were sent to hard labor in Siberia, demoted to
the ranks... Eleven wives of the Decembrists prisoners shared their Siberian exile of theirs
own free will.
read more>>>   
...Short name, in turn, has many different forms and varies in spelling and  pronunciation,
which leads foreigners to some confusion. In Russian language using a particular form of
the first name you can express your attitude to person.
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